cos'è il tg nella produzione di pcb22-09-2020
cos'è il tg nella produzione di pcb
All radio enthusiasts and electronic engineers know what a printed circuit board is. They even let them at home. However, there are usually tasks that require the quantity of these products to be set at a quantity other than one. Or, a prefabricated board is required. This demand is aimed at satisfying the business of manufacturing printed circuit boards in an industrial manner.
The printed circuit board is the electronic heart of any modern device. It is a dielectric board with conductive circuits deposited on the surface of the board or embedded in it. All electronic components are connected via printed circuit boards. To this end, the pins of the components are soldered into mounting pads or holes on the board, and the components interact with each other due to the pattern of the conductive circuit.
Usually, the conductive pattern on the board is made of foil, while the base itself (dielectric board) is made of glass fiber getinax. Printed circuit boards are divided into single-sided OPP (foil on one side), double-sided DPP (foil on both sides), multi-layer MPP (by bonding several OPP or DPP together, so that multiple with their own patterns The conductive layer is placed inside the dielectric board)… OPP has received the greatest demand due to its ease of manufacturing and wide application potential. DPP is less used because its manufacturing cost is several times higher, and compared with OPP, the efficiency is not very high. MPP is used in expensive and compact equipment; in fact, it is not used in daily life and small-scale production.
Printed circuit board: core dielectric category
All sheets made of printed circuit boards are marked with an alphanumeric index FR (flame retardant). The numbers 1 to 5 after the letter indicate the quality of the material.
FR-1, FR-2, FR-3-paper are impregnated with special epoxy compound. FR-4, FR-5-glass fiber and epoxy composite material. In fact, FR-1 is not used due to its low performance characteristics and concerns about moisture. However, it is very cheap and is usually used to manufacture short-lived printed circuit board prototypes. FR-2 is a cheap, reliable and high-quality dielectric; circuit boards made of this material are widely used in the manufacture of household appliances and the mass production of printed circuit boards. FR-4 is used in the production of industrial equipment and small-scale (piece) manufacturing of PCBs.
Printed circuit boards: manufacturing methods
The principle method of manufacturing printed circuit boards can be divided into two major types-addition (from Latin addition-addition) and subtraction (from Latin subtraction-subtraction). In the first case, a future-based printed circuit board (usually through a chemical method) forms a conductive pattern in various ways through a special mask. In the second case, a thin sheet of foil is coated on the dielectric board, and then a mask for the future circuit is formed on top of it, and various methods (laser, chemical etching, mechanical removal) are used to remove unnecessary thin portions .
In industrial production, a combined method is usually used. Therefore, the production cost of the printed circuit board is minimized. Moreover, as the use of laser technology progresses, industrial laser prototypes are increasingly used.
However, no matter which installation you choose to organize your own business, they are highly automated, and manual involvement in the manufacturing process of printed circuit boards boils down to monitoring the installation parameters and making corrections in time.
For circuit boards manufactured in any way, the post-processing is the same-this is an electrical test (checking the conductivity of all contact pads and patterns), applying solder resist and marking.
In order to expand your business, you can master the installation supervision of printed circuit board components and the production of technical documents, so that customers can receive complete products.
We are open to production of printed circuit boards: business organization, necessary equipment
The minimum area for a production workshop or a workshop for the production of printed circuit boards is 80 square meters, excluding warehouse space. Most equipment requires a 380V three-phase power supply, and chemical equipment that discharges active solutions requires the use of special sewage discharge ports. Therefore, it is more convenient to open similar products in industrial clusters or regions.
General list of requirements for industrial buildings:
Power cord (220 and 380V),
Supply and distribution of compressed air
Water supply (general drainage system (urban), water desalination plant for the preparation of active solutions),
Industrial waste from the sewer.
Generally, a group of industrial equipment that is arranged in the correct manner and maintained regularly in accordance with regulations can work in two shifts without interruption for about 10 years.
Industrial equipment used to produce printed materials includes:
Machining area. Equipment for cutting, drilling, fixing, and CNC milling machines. Preparation of the dielectric board.
Nip. Produce foil cladding and press multilayer printed circuit boards.
Wet processing site. Manufacture and install conductive circuits on dielectric boards. Equipment for chemical cleaning, oxidation, copper plating, developing, galvanizing, etc.
Top coat application. Pre-cleaning and post-cleaning of wood boards (mechanical and ultrasonic methods), hot tinning, etc.
Yellow room. Exposure and lamination of printed circuit boards.
Quality Control Section.
Mark the area.
The choice of a set of equipment depends on many parameters of the production itself, as well as the number of plans and the satisfaction of demand. Small-scale production requires inexpensive equipment, which can meet the needs of fast and short-term execution of simple orders. The quality and accuracy of circuit boards manufactured with this equipment will meet the needs of simple or private customers, who need no more than 500 circuit boards per year.
It is also possible to organize a company that works according to the contract manufacturing plan. (According to the customer’s technical cycle and quality control, mass production of printed circuit boards for a large number of customers). Of course, this kind of production requires a large amount of capital investment, because companies participating in this niche market require significant differences in competition, mainly from the Southeastern market sector (Taiwan, China, India, etc.). Therefore, the equipment must be expensive and high-end. The professionalism of Russian personnel is also a specific advantage, which is guaranteed by the highly trained experts of the local Radio Electronic University. Therefore, the foundry production of printed circuit boards with professionals and good equipment is not a fantasy, but a fully mature business plan for such enterprises. After all, the global annual contract production volume exceeds 40 billion U.S. dollars, and there is no obvious leader region in this industry. Business operations in China and Europe are effective. This is not only due to the unification of production, but also the quality of the craft. Therefore, Russian companies organized for contract manufacturing have the opportunity to successfully integrate and operate in this specific field.
People and other aspects of this business
The main purpose of organizing this type of business is to clearly understand and understand the process. Without knowledge, only participate in this business in the form of co-investment. Moreover, any article with business ideas will not change this situation. Therefore, it is assumed that the organizer knows all the functions and details, what equipment he needs and what experts the company needs.
In a workshop dedicated to small-scale production, four wagon operators will be enough to monitor the production of printed circuit boards. Quality control experts and production managers are also needed. You can sign contracts with handymen, accountants, businessmen, secretaries and cleaners as needed.
By organizing electronic and electronic equipment subsidiaries, the business can be expanded, and the main production will meet the needs of printed circuit boards.
By correctly organizing the business and choosing the production direction, the investment can be recovered within 1-2 years.
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The complete set of equipment and cost required to manufacture printed circuit boards:
1. Milling cutters for 2-4 units-$2.2 thousand;
2. Device for separating printed circuit board blanks-USD 9.50;
3. Electrical installation for metallization-11,200 yuan;
4. The printing machine is used to manufacture multilayer printed circuit boards-$24,000;
5. Drying cabinet-$3500;
6. Water cooling system-$18,000;
7. Equipment accessories-about $3,000.
Today, for a fully automated production line, the cost of such equipment may fluctuate around US$64,000. At the same time, the device is fully ready to perform tasks and will not interrupt work when all communications are present. If routine maintenance and operation work are performed correctly, this set of industrial equipment can operate in two shifts for 8-10 years.
The following materials are used to manufacture printed circuit boards:
2. Glass fiber or getinax;
3. Anodized aluminum;
4. Copper foil;
5. Fluoroplastic reinforced glass fiber;
These raw materials must be of high quality, because the reliability of the finished product directly depends on this. The cost of all components is between 68,000 and 72,000 US dollars.
In order to organize the uninterrupted production process of printed circuit boards, it is necessary to hire the following personnel: The number of operators for each production line is 4-6, depending on the scale of production, quality control personnel, production managers, handymen (security personnel, cleaning personnel, Secretary, accountant, loading officer).
Since this kind of production refers to activities that may endanger the health of employees and cause occupational diseases, operators on the production line will receive approximately $250 per month. The salary of a quality inspector will fluctuate between $300-330 per month. The production manager will receive about $460, and the salary of the handyman will be about $150-180 per month. Therefore, it is necessary to allocate about $3500 to pay the employees of the enterprise.
To advertise in this area, first, you need to start creating and promoting your own website. The website will enable a wide range of consumers to understand your business, and it can also compete with existing PCB manufacturers. You can also place advertising banners on partner websites on the Internet. This will allow potential consumers to reach the widest possible audience. In addition, you can print in professional magazines or newspaper publications. It is also important to participate in seminars, exhibitions, and media holdings to promote and promote your own business. According to the marketing strategy, you can spend about $700 per month to promote your products.
PCB business development expenses:
1. Rental of premises for 2 months-US$600-1000;
2. Equipment-64,000 USD;
3. Purchase materials-US$6.8-7.2 thousand;
4. Workers’ wages-US$3500;
6. Additional fees-150-200 $.
In total, it will need to invest approximately US$75,000 to open its own business to produce microelectronic printed circuit boards.
Operating profit and investment payback period.
The market value of printed circuit boards is between 15.6-20.4 US dollars, depending on the size of the workpiece and its field of work. The cost of this type of product is $12.4-17.3. The net profit is approximately USD 3 per unit. The production line can produce about 220 units per day on average. If you organize product sales, you can produce 6.6 units of finished products per month. In this case, the company’s monthly profit will be approximately $19,800. Considering all necessary monthly expenditures and investments, according to the selected manufacturing strategy, the business of manufacturing microelectronic printed circuit boards can be rewarded within 1-2 years.
Product sales and business development.
Applications of microelectronic printed circuit boards:
1. Automobile industry;
2. Medical equipment;
3. Small industrial electronic products;
4. Measuring device;
5. Computer industry;
6. Manufacturing of small household appliances;
7. Information industry.
There are several ways to develop business in this industry. If you decide to manufacture a certain type of printed circuit board, you can start to expand the types and sizes of products offered. In addition, you can start making two-layer or three-layer boards. You can also change your business and decide to produce products for large electronic products.
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