ข้อดีข้อเสียของการผลิต PCB ชั้นเดียวคืออะไร?2020-03-30
A comprehensive guide to understanding single layer PCB manufacturing process, advantages, disadvantages and why it is important for you?
Currently, single layer pcb manufacturing occupies almost a third of the total production volume of these pcb designs, which indicates their excellent competitiveness.
What is a printed circuit board?
Printed circuit boards – basic knowledge
Today, almost nothing works without single layer pcb manufacturing technology, neither in the household, at work or in industrial production. However, users are rarely aware of what is behind the small components that bring our electronics to life. All general electronics heavily depend on single layer pcb manufacturing companies.
Such a special component is the printed circuit board, without which electronic devices and components would not be possible. Just think of the mainboard on the PC.
Generally, the pcb is a plate made of an insulating material (eg epoxy resin) with wafer-thin copper conductor tracks. Pcb manufacturers equip it with electronic components (circuits, diodes, resistors, etc.).
Moreover, these are either connected on one side by small holes to the conductor lines using a solder connection or on both sides, i.e. the copper conductor tracks and components are located on both sides of the circuit board.
Single layer pcb manufacturing- The simplest printed circuit boards
This is also known as a single-sided circuit board. Generally, it is the simplest and most commonly used circuit board in most electronic devices because it is easy to design and manufacture. Single layer pcb manufacturing comes with a layer of conductive material, often copper.
A solder mask layer protects the circuit board from oxidation. Similarly, a screen-print identifies the components of the circuit board. This type of PCB is used in low cost, mass production applications such as printers, radios, and calculators.
Why Single Layer PCB?
Single-layer pcbs are cost-effective dielectrics coated on one side with a foil layer. Therefore, due to the design features – the presence of a metal heat sink (for example, aluminum alloy 1100/5056) and a thin dielectric layer (80-100 microns) – are used in cases where it is necessary to create an effective heat sink from the surface of the board.
Single layer pcb manufacturing Scope of use
- Household Appliances
- Automatic Control Systems / Automation
- Control and switching devices (high current)
- LED lights
- Power Supplies & Measuring Instruments
Materials used in single layer pcb manufacturing
ในการsingle layer pcb manufacturing, pcb manufacturers use fiberglass often:
- FR4 1-1.5 mm thick.
- IMS boards with an integrated heat sink.
Design features of single-layer pcbs
Single-layer PPs consist of a layered dielectric coated on one side with thin protective material. Often, in the form of a facing material, high-purity electrotechnical copper foil is used. Moreover, the dielectric layer is fiberglass or composite materials impregnated with epoxy/bakelite resin.
As a result of processing (chemical or mechanical), a topology of conductors is created on the side of the dielectric/metal base. Simultaneously, among the common methods for the formation of a conductive pattern (topology), offset printing and a network graphic method have separate techniques for single layer pcb manufacturing.
Then, the surface of the topology is covered with layers of solder mask and finish coating, which contribute to:
- effective elimination of the spreading of solder;
- protection against external adverse effects;
- facilitate visual inspection of installation work.
Single Layer pcb Manufacturing methods
The main production method is a subtractive chemical method for creating a topology. In this case, the dielectrics from the foil are subjected to removal of the foil material from non-conductive portions of the board.
Stages of the subtractive method of production
- A cutting of technological blanks
- Drilling the required holes and preparing foil surfaces – This is also called deoxidation step
- Commonly, deburring and applying the photoresist by screening to areas not subject to further etching
- The stage of etching, washing the photoresist
- Solder mask and topcoat
- Labeling and quality control
Important point: when creating single-layer high-resolution pcbs, the screen-printing method for applying photoresist is replaced by the photo-printing method of forming a topology.
PCB Manufacturing Categories
The selection and planning abut pcb board design is a decisive point especially in terms of mechanical characteristics. Simultaneously, for single layer pcb manufacturing, pcb boards manufacturers use materials of various quality levels.
Moreover, the most suitable and convenient for the developer will be if the manufacturer of pcbs is nearby.
The use of Layered materials in single layer pcb manufacturing
Pcb manufacturers denote layered materials by the indices FR (flame resistant, resistance to ignition) and G for single layer pcb manufacturing. Similarly, a material with the index FR-1 has the highest combustibility, and FR-5 – the smallest.
Principles of choosing ready-made boards: prices and manufacturers
Electronics stores offer customers a wide range of single layer pcb manufacturing electronic products. That is why, when buying, it is important to consider some factors:
- The dimensions of the base. Generally, it depends on the number of elements installed on it.
- The number of layers used in the manufacture of tiles.
- Presence of metal inserts on the holes for fixing the radio elements.
- Double-sided or single-sided drawing.
- Flexible or rigid base.
We use single layer pcb manufacturing equipment for many purposes.
For instance, there is no point in overpaying for a well-known brand if you need to assemble a simple electrical appliance. However, the cheapest single layer pcb manufacturing company will quickly fail and can cause a fire. When choosing, you need to check the performance of electric tracks, the integrity of the structure.
Board Fabrication Materials
Generally, there are several types of materials that are used in the manufacturing process for electronics:
- The main part of the structure must be made of dielectric material. It can be fiberglass, genitals.
- The second option for manufacturing boards is a metal base on which a dielectric layer is applied. Anodized aluminum is most commonly used.
- For heat-resistant substrates, single layer pcb manufacturing, fluoroplastic is used. It is additionally reinforced with fiberglass. Ceramics are added to the composition to increase mechanical properties.
- To make flexible tiles, apply kapton.
Materials can be bought at any electronics store.
DIY single layer PCB manufacturing
It is easy to make the base for electrical appliances yourself. To do this, you need to study the single layer pcb manufacturing theory, prepare supplies, tools, perform a certain procedure.
For manufacturing you will need:
- Textolite– must have a layer of foil. It can be double-sided or single-sided. Furthermore, the manufacture of foil material will take a lot of time, it is better to buy a finished tile.
- Iron, an industrial hairdryer with temperature control.
- 3D printer.
- Scissors for metal.
- Glossy coated photo paper.
- Medical alcohol.
- Fine sandpaper.
- Adhesive tape, marker.
10.Drilling machine, drill, engraver.
- Chlorine iron.
Additional tools include a soldering iron, solder, and flux for mounting electronic components.
Single layer pcb manufacturing steps:
- On the PCB sheet, note the dimensions of the future plate. Cut it with metal scissors.
- Use fine-size emery paper to sand the sides of the PCB until shine appears. To process the ends to get rid of irregularities.
- Wet a piece of cloth with alcohol, wipe the plate. You need to work in rubber gloves so as not to get dirty surfaces with greasy fingers. It is very important for a single layer pcb manufacturing.
- Similarly, draw in advance a drawing of future conductive paths on a computer. Calculate connecting nodes, docking points for additional components, jumpers.
- Print the resulting pattern of conductors on photo paper.
- Put the printout face down on the text Olite. Connect the iron to the network, wait until it warms up. Similarly, smooth the paper over the hard plate with slow movements. When it starts to turn yellow, remove the iron.
- Take the board with soldered paper to the washbasin. Lower under running water. Using a toothbrush, wipe off any remaining paper.
- Place the plate under a bright light to dry.
9-Preparation of the composition for etching- single layer pcb board manufacturing
You will need ferric chloride, which is sold in powder stores in electronics. Take a container from plastic, pour three parts of water into it, add one part of ferric chloride. Stir the solution thoroughly.
- Dip the dry board into the finished mixture for etching. Generally, the processing speed of the board is affected by the quality of the reagents, the temperature of the composition, the thickness of the foil layer. To speed up the process, the liquid can be heated.
However, too high a temperature will damage the drawing. In addition, to speed up the process safely, you can attach a motor from the phone to the tank. Light vibrations affect etching.
- After etching, the board must be washed under running water. Wipe with a cloth soaked in alcohol.
- The next single layer pcb manufacturing process is drilling.
To do this, it is advisable to use a special machine, engraver or drill. Furthermore, the tool is fixed motionless with a vice so that precise holes can be made. According to the drawing, drilling takes place. After making holes, it is necessary to pass sandpaper on the surface of the board, removing burrs.
- Tinning of the base
The board is wetted with medical alcohol. It must be applied with a rag with light movements without clamps. Moisten another rag in the pickling solution. Moreover, lubricate the sides of the board. Heat the solder with a soldering iron, apply it quickly on electric channels.
- With a fine-grained paper, walk along the sides of the tile.
Tinning is considered an optional step in the manufacture of boards. However, it is made because of several advantages:
- Increases corrosion resistance.
- The thickness of the conductive layer increases, due to which the resistance decreases, the efficiency of the board improves.
- It is easier to solder the radio parts.
Subject to the rules of the work, assembling a makeshift board does not seem like a complicated process. In short, before fixing other parts, it is important to check the conductive patterns.
Common mistakes in single layer pcb manufacturing
When assembling makeshift bases, people make various mistakes. Generally, the most common are:
- Wrong width of conductive paths.This leads to a loss of voltage, overheating of the conductors, low mechanical strength. Hence, in order not to encounter such problems, it is necessary to make the maximum allowable width of the conductive tracks.
- Improper power circuit design. Reduces output voltage, large output ripple, interference
instead of constant voltage. Therefore, the solution to this problem is the maximum width of the tracks, the supply capacitor made of ceramic.
- 3. Grounding problems. Using a conventional conductor of the minimum width. It leads to instability of the working process, overheating of the base. In addition, the solution is to use a separate insulation layer for wiring.
- A small gap between the copper conductors deposited on the board. Simultaneously, it leads to a violation of the integrity of the base. It is necessary to increase the distance between the conductors to cope with the problem.
- A large number of connecting holes on one plate. This leads to an increase in the conductive paths, an increase in resistance. Simultaneously, use a maximum of two holes on small plates.
There are other problems. However, they are less popular and require specialist intervention.
Remember the following points and keep them in mind when designing and wiring analog circuits.
- think of a circuit board as a component of an electrical circuit
- Simultaneously, have an understanding and understanding of the sources of noise and interference
- model and layout schemes
Single layer pcb manufacturing:
- use pcbs only with quality material (e.g. FR-4)
- Similarly, circuits made on multilayer pcbs are 20 dB less susceptible to external noise than circuits made on two-layer circuit boards
- use divided, non-overlapping polygons for different lands and supplies
- furthermore, Place the ground and power polygons on the inside layers of the circuit board.
- never run wires carrying logic signals through the analog area of the board, and vice versa
- try to avoid the use of unnecessary vias, as their inductance can lead to additional problems
- above all, do not run conductors at right angles and smooth the tops of corners, if possible
Do you want to assemble a single layer pcb board?
Pcbs are the basis of electrical appliances, mechanisms. Similarly, they are soldered to key elements that perform certain functions. Moreover, you can assemble the base with your own hands. To do this, you need to determine where it will be used, draw a drawing, pick up a drawing, perform a certain sequence of actions. Moreover, you can also contact a single layer pcb manufacturing company.
Most often, single-sided PCBs use in inexpensive household appliances. Similarly, the disadvantages of single layer pcb manufacturing class include the low reliability and weakness of the fastening of elements, which often peel off from the dielectric base of the pcb. So, metalized holes give the structure greater strength.