2-Layer PCB manufacturing: The Most Popular Technique in 20212021-06-08
Why 2-layer PCB boards beneficial for household appliances?
The most common PCBs, double-layer printed circuit boards (DPPs), contain 2 dielectric layers connected by a double-sided topology. Basically, 2-layer PCB manufacturing is a very common type of PCB manufacturing.
Further, the conductors between the layers combine into a single structure using through-through vias/ mounting plated holes.
What are the most popular areas of use?
Industrial / household appliances
Security / fire alarm systems
Measuring equipment and control systems
Also, Military electronics and telecommunications
Materials used in 2-Layer PCB manufacturing:
Among the main dielectric materials of 2-layer PCBs there are:
Composite based on fiberglass – FR-4.
Phenolic composition FR-2.
CEM-1 – cellulose base with a layer of fiberglass.
CEM-3 is an epoxy-based composite.
What is the 2-Layer PCB manufacturing process?
The combined positive method is the most commonly used method for creating topology on double-layer PCBs. Hence, when creating simple boards, the technological parameters of which meet the standard ones, another combined manufacturing method is common – the tenting method.
What is the manufacturing of PCBs? (2-Layer PCB manufacturing)
A printed circuit board is a plate or panel made of a dielectric material, on which electrically conductive circuits come in accordance with the circuit diagram and which is designed to be attached to it and interconnected with passive and active electronic components and electrical products. Moreover, the components on the PCB solder to the PCB.
The same process is repeated for 2-layer PCB manufacturing and other multiple PCB boards.
What are the most popular applications of PCB boards?
Printed circuit boards are good to use in all areas of industry, in all electronic devices such as;
In addition, communications,
television and radio equipment,
Moreover, ships and spacecraft.
Hence, with the advent of printed circuit boards, the accuracy and durability of electronic devices and their components has increased many times over.
Moreover, PCB manufacturing technology is constantly evolving and contributing to the reduction in device size due to the increase in the number of placed components on the board and the increasing complexity and layering of PCBs.
By using flexible printed circuit boards, the size and weight of devices significantly reduce. Furthermore, their static and dynamic flexibility appears, the cost of manufacturing (2-layer PCB manufacturing) the final product reduces and their efficiency is improved. As well as, the development of electronics is simplified.
What are the most common uses of flexible PCB boards?
At the moment, flexible printed circuit boards are common in:
Generally, wired and wireless communication devices;
measuring devices of varying complexity and accuracy;
Furthermore, in automatic control systems;
signal processing devices;
Also, devices for recording, processing or reproducing multimedia data.
What is the classification of 2-Layer PCB manufacturing products?
Depending on the properties of the dielectric:
1.products made of rigid material;
2.products from flexible material.
3.Depending on the number of layers of the board, printed circuit boards are:
Single layer (OPP):
boards that have only one layer of electrically conductive foil glued to one side of a dielectric plate.
These are boards in which an electrically conductive circuit forms on both sides of a dielectric material. In fact, the 2-layer PCB manufacturing is highly beneficial as it allows a higher density in components. Additionally, it makes the laying of tracks an easier process.
These boards have not only two outer layers of conductive material, but also several layers inside the dielectric plate. Hence, such boards are high-tech products, in which the outer layers are common for fixing and interconnecting electronic components on them. Similarly, the inner ones for arranging power polygons and interlayer connections.
What are the technological features of PCB boards?
The technological features of PCB circuits are;
boards made on aluminum substrates;
made for SMD installation;
MP boards with hidden and blind holes;
printed circuit boards-transformers.
What are the boards made of?
Dielectrics are the main materials for manufacturing printed circuit boards. Essentially, the most common material is fiberglass. Today there are materials such as: Taconic, FR4 HighTg, FR4, FR5, CEM1, Arlon, CEM3, Rogers, FLAN, FAF, Pl (polyimide) and others.
To cover dielectric areas, it is common:
lead-free application (Lead-free HAL);
hot application (HAL);
application of immersion materials (tin, gold, silver).
In some cases, the boards come of anodized aluminum with a dielectric layer applied to it, followed by copper tracks. Also, printed circuit boards operating in high-frequency and high-temperature modes give better resistance.
Furthermore, fluoroplastic and ceramics are good to use for their manufacture, which increases their stability and reliability.
Flexible boards come from polyimide materials. While 2-layer PCB manufacturing is easy as well as it can deliver ideal functionality as they have not any type of propagation delays and any other problem.
Different programs in the PCB designs:
The design of printed circuit boards for various devices occurs in special design programs such as KiCad, gEDA, TopoR, Specctra, P-CAD, OrCAD and others. The design itself implies the design of the layout of the conductors and the location of the components on the board.
However, the design takes into account the materials available to the manufacturer and technological capabilities, which significantly affect the quality and complexity of manufacturing printed circuit boards.
Stages for drawing circuits for 2-Layer PCB manufacturing
Drawing up a circuit for printed circuit boards is divided into the following technological stages:
The choice of flexibility and accuracy class for the manufacture of the product;
Moreover, determination of the design features of the printed circuit board (dimensions, mounting holes, height dimensions of components, etc.);
Layout and linking of components on a printed circuit board;
Similarly, trace execution (track design);
Checking the board for errors;
Furthermore, creation and execution of project documentation.
Single or 2-layer PCB manufacturing
Hole making and plating
Holes (mounting or transitional) drill with a laser. Blind or buried vias is easy to fabricate to increase project efficiency. The holes plate chemically (copper deposit). Basically, this process has many stages and requires specialized conditions for its implementation.
Moreover, 2-layer PCB manufacturing process is easy as well as cost-effective to produce perfect boards for different uses.
2-Layer PCB manufacturing Techniques
In the production of printed circuit boards with many layers, pressing is required. Multilayer PCBs stack from several single-layer (or double-layer) boards with special spacers between them.
However, the production of printed circuit boards up to 45xUdHPiFHQ7xbKh19G45saF1raB2ot5pag8p1Hnk4yrfXRJZskr8TMbFpVfC5tDk8eQQg63TqkW9gKhwagx6HePTaK2yXbstructures are easy to use. So, then they place them in a special oven, pressed and drilled the necessary holes.
The process of application of special coatings
After the preparation and manufacture of the printed circuit board, a special protective coating is applied – a solder mask, the board is marked using a laser or silk-screen printing method.
Also, if necessary, the conductors tin to protect the copper surface and facilitate the subsequent installation of components into holes, including blind and hidden, if necessary, apply special masks, compound or copper.