cómo iniciar un negocio de fabricación de PCB2020-08-08
cómo iniciar un negocio de fabricación de PCB
La creación de cualquier equipo informático sin una placa de circuito impreso es imposible. Por lo tanto, en el mundo moderno, la producción de placas de circuito impreso es una de las industrias más rentables. Además, la tecnología en sí no es difícil. Algunos artesanos incluso pueden producir placas de circuito impreso en casa.
- Locales y empleados
- Producción tecnológica
- Proceso de manufactura
- pruebas de producto
Locales y empleados
Any manufacturer of electronic products values the circuit boards assembled in the factory, but for this kind of production organization, you need a room and sufficient personnel. Room requirements:
Minimum area -80 m 2;
Electricity exists in three-phase 380V;
Special sewers where the liquid mixture will leave the chemical stage of production;
Compressed air circulation.
It is best to equip this type of production in an industrial zone. Without knowledge, it is difficult to organize such a business, and it can only be done in the form of co-investment. Therefore, experts are needed in the staff. In the initial stages of small-scale production, you will need:
Generalist operators supervising the manufacturing process of printed circuit boards-4 people;
Quality control specialist
Director of Operations;
Handyman: porters, cleaners, if necessary, these experts can be hired according to the employment contract
You will also need a marketing staff, accountant, and secretary. In the light production of these positions, you can also find employees according to the contract.
As the business expands, the number of employees can increase.
Start-up equipment required to start production of printed circuit boards:
1、Part of processing. They are used in the preparation phase of the dielectric board. This includes: cutting, drilling, CNC milling machine, fixing.
2、Pressing equipment for producing foil coatings and pressing of multilayer printing boards.
3、Wet process equipment. Device for chemical cleaning, copper plating, developing, galvanizing, and oxidation. Equipment for mounting and manufacturing conductive circuits on dielectric boards.
4、The final coating. Equipment for hot tinning and preliminary and final cleaning of boards.
5、Printed circuit board laminating equipment.
Manufacturing technology includes two main methods:
1、additive. The tracks are mounted on the dielectric surface in different ways.
2、Subtraction. This is the laser ironing technology and all its modifications. The toner on the laser printer can protect the future tracks on the fiberglass board. All excess substances are discharged with ferric chloride.
Combination methods can also be used. In this process, sometimes even part of the conductive coating is etched off immediately after application, but in the end, this is a simpler and cheaper method than pure subtractive techniques.
According to the type of printed circuit board to be produced, the following materials are required:
Foil glass fiber;
Dielectric foil for sealing installation.
The following are dielectrics:
Laminate on a metal substrate;
The thickness of the glass fiber for standard applications is 0.5 to 3 mm.
Proceso de manufactura
Algorithms for manufacturing printed circuit boards:
1、In the first stage, a blank is formed. It is necessary to cut the shape on the equipment and prepare the aluminum foil, and then apply it to the cut out work piece.
2、Draw a diagram of the circuit board conductors. This is the most labor-intensive production process and requires the greatest investment.
3、Plating PCB holes.
4、Press the plate to print.
At each stage, the exact compliance with the technology must be monitored in order to obtain a high-quality product.
pruebas de producto
The most common methods are electrical and optical testing. When electrical testing is used, the overall continuity of the circuit and whether there is a short circuit will be checked.
In the optical test, the product will be checked for mechanical defects. During the optical test, warpage, wrong fastening components, insufficient or excessive welding material will be detected. Due to the complexity of production and insufficient personnel qualifications, errors often occur, especially in the early stages.
You can sell the products produced by the company to various companies:
Used in the automotive industry;
Used in medical equipment;
Companies related to the production of computer equipment;
Large and small household appliances.
The average payback period of such a production line is 1-2 years. Starting capital-at least $75,000. If you plan to expand further, you can start with $50,000, but in this case, you must first devote all your income to development.
Manufacturing printed circuit boards is not the easiest business option. However, it will always pay off, as long as the strict adherence to the technology is sufficient to organize the entire process competently. An important factor is professionals. The start-up capital for this kind of production should be impressive, because the high-quality equipment used to manufacture printed circuit boards at all stages is very expensive. First, you need about $50,000 to organize a successful business in this category from scratch.